Status and prospects of Avocado cultivation in India


  • Prakash Chandra Tripathi



status, prospects, avocado, India


Avocado (Persia americana) is a native to tropical America. It was originated in Mexico and Central America, possibly from more than one wild species. The early Spanish explorers recorded its cultivation from Mexico to Peru. Avocado production increased almost 1100 percent as compared to 1961. In India, Avocado was introduced in Bangalore and hill stations like Kallar near Nilgris, Palani hills of  Kodaikanal, Shrevaroy hills of Yercaud, Coorg during 1912 and 1940. Later the seedlings of those varieties spread over humid subtropical region but remain neglected. The avocado cultivation have gained an overwhelming popularity during last one decade due to nutritional properties of the fruits. Presently around 7000 tones of avocados annually and the production is increasing rapidly as more and more areas is being brought under cultivation.   The agro- climatic conditions prevailing in various parts of the country appear to be favorable for bringing more areas under avocado. Recently several varieties belonging to all three horticultural races i.e., West Indian, Guatemalan and Mexican have been introduced in India. Some varieties such as  Arka Supreme, Arka Ravi and TKD-1 were  released by CHES(IIHR), Chettalli (Coorg)  and HRS station Thayangudusai (TN). These research centres are maintaining large number of accession of avocado germplasm. CHES (IIHR), Chettalli standardized the cleft grafting method for multiplication of avocado.  Avocado is planted at a distance of 5 to 8 meters depending on the vigour of variety and growth habit.  In general, young avocado trees are given N, P2O5 and K2O in the proportion of 1:1:1 and older trees in the proportion of 2:1:2 . Both A & B types are  planted in the orchards for proper pollination and sufficient number of pollinators should be encouraged by keeping honey bee boxes.  The studies conducted at CHES, Chettalli revealed that Apis cerena was the major pollinator followed by Apis florea, Tetragonula sp. and ants. Avocado plants seedlings start bearing five to six years after planting while grafted plants start yielding in 3-4 years. Harvesting is done manually  and bruising and exposing fruits to direct sunlight is  avoided. The yield ranges from 100 to 500 fruits per tree. The peak harvest time is different in different region. Presently, there is very little  organized marketing system for avocado in India  as the production is small and production areas are scattered. Avocados are mostly produced in Coorg, Chikmagalur, Shivamogga, Kodaikanal, Lower Palani hills, Kallar and Wayanad. The demand of avocado is manly in metro cities like Chennai, Bengaluru, Mumbai, Delhi,Pune and Ahmadabad.  A large quality of avocado and avocado products are being imported in the country to fulfil the demand. Avocado is mainly used fresh, in sandwich filling or in salads.. Several products of avocado i.e. Arka avocado chutney, Arka avocado bread spread, Spray dried avocado powder have been developed by ICAR-IIHR, Bangalore.  The cultivation area is rapidly growing in  Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil    Nadu, North Eastern States etc. of the country. The seminars, workshops, field days, awareness programmes, demonstrations etc. conducted by ICAR-IIHR, Bangalore  during last one  decade played a vital role in popularization of avocado in the country.  Visualizing the demand and rising popularity of avocado at domestic and international level, there is good scope of Avocado cultivation in India. There is need to provide suitable technological backup to fulfil the requirement of growers, processing industry and consumers


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How to Cite

Tripathi, P. C. (2024). Status and prospects of Avocado cultivation in India. Brazilian Journal of Development, 10(2), e67059.



Original Papers