Mechanical performance of soil monolith collectors of adjustable dimensions / Desempenho mecânico de um coletor de monolitos de solo de dimensões ajustáveis


  • Marcio Venzon Brazilian Journals Publicações de Periódicos, São José dos Pinhais, Paraná
  • Tonny José Araújo da Silva
  • Edna Maria Bonfim-Silva
  • Renato Tillmann Bassini
  • William Fenner



Agricultural machine, Soil sampler, Undeformed sample.


Scientists across the globe face a large challenge during representative soil sample collection when having to carefully retain the physical-chemical structure of the soil. The goal was to validate the performance of a mechanical collector of soil monoliths of adjustable formats and to establish suitable mechanical indicators of the operational equipment. The collector's operating ability, efficiency, and precision were confirmed in terms of the aspects listed: definition of the optimal rotation of work; maintenance of a uniform diameter and height of the monoliths in cylindrical and conical formats; collection efficiency under unfavorable conditions (roots and gravel presence); specification of the ideal soil moisture levels for collection from the various types of soil classes; collection from terrain characterized by uneven topography and evaluation of the wearing out of cutting tool edges (drill). The data were analyzed using the coefficient of variation and a confidence interval test (p < 0.05). The monolith collector was very efficient, showing a high degree of precision during the sample collection, cutting the samples between 0.15 and 0.80 m in diameter for the cylindrical shaped particles and between 0.17 and 0.50 m for the conical ones. However, soil moisture levels exceeding 18 % limited the equipment’s performance on clayey soils.


ALLAIRE S.S.; BOCHOVE E.V. Collecting large soil monoliths. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, v.86, p.885-896, 2006.

BORTOLON L.; GIANELLO C.; CONTE O.; OLIVEIRA S.; LEVIEN R. Undisturbed soil sampling equipment for research in controlled conditions. Brazilian Journal of Soil Science, v.33, p.1929-1934, 2009.

GATIBONI L.C.; KAMINSKI J.; RHEINHEIMER D.S.; FLORES J.P.C. Bioavailability of soil phosphorus forms in no-tillage system. Brazilian Journal of Soil Science, v.31, p. 691-699, 2007.

GROOVER M.P. Introduction to Manufacturing Processes. Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, USA, 720p, 2011.

HADDAD N.I.; LAWRIE R.A.; ELDRIDGE S.M. Improved method of making soil monoliths using an acrylic bonding agent and proline auger. Geoderma, v.151, p.395-400, 2009.

HILLEL D. (1982) Introduction to soil physics. Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 392p, 1982.

PALUDO J.T.S.; BONFIM-SILVA E.M.; SILVA T.J.A.; ZANOTTO M.D.; FENNER W.; KOETZ M. Reproductive components of safflower genotypes submitted of bulk density levels in the Brazilian Cerrado. American Journal of Plant Sciences, v.8, p.2069-2082, 2017.

PAYTON M.E.; MILLER A.E.; RAUN W.R. Testing Statistical hypothesis using standard error bars and confidence intervals. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, v.31, p.547-551, 2000.

PERES-OLIVEIRA M.A.; BONFIM-SILVA E.M.; SILVA V.M.; SILVA T.J.A.; SOUSA H.H.F. Soybean as bioindicator of residual effect of 2,4-D herbicide in an Oxisol from the Brazilian Cerrado. African Journal of Agricultural Research, v.12, p.35-41, 2017.

PIMENTEL-GOMES F. Curso de estatística experimental. FEALQ, Piracicaba, SP, BR, 451p, 2009.

SCHAETZL R.; ANDERSON S. Soils Genesis and Geomorphology. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, USA, 827p, 2005.

SILVÉRIO J.M.; SILVA T.J.A.; BONFIM-SILVA E.M.; IAIA A.M.; DUARTE T.F.; PIRES R.C.M. Drought tolerance of the sugar cane varieties during the initial development. Australian Journal of Crop Science, v.11, p.711-715, 2017.

Soil Survey Staff. Keys to Soil Taxonomy. USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service, Washington, DC, USA, 2014.

SOUZA B.R.F.; JUNIOR C.A.S.; CARVALHO L.; PELLIN D. Soil sampler’s performance under different plant canopies in the region of Aquidauana-MS. Agrarian Academy, v.1, p.146-158, 2014.




How to Cite

Venzon, M., Silva, T. J. A. da, Bonfim-Silva, E. M., Bassini, R. T., & Fenner, W. (2020). Mechanical performance of soil monolith collectors of adjustable dimensions / Desempenho mecânico de um coletor de monolitos de solo de dimensões ajustáveis. Brazilian Journal of Development, 6(8), 58201–58217.



Original Papers